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The Noun

Noun – A noun is a word used as the name of a person, animal, place, thing or idea. Everything which exists is represented by a name and that naming word is a Noun. The word ‘everything’ means anything e.g. countable, uncountable, visible, invisible, touchable, untouchable, events, feelings, etc. Nouns are words and not the real/actual things.

संज्ञा – संज्ञा वह शब्द है जो व्यक्ति, जानवर, स्थान, वस्तु, अवधारणा आदि के नाम के लिये प्रयोग होता है । सभी वस्तुएं जो अस्तित्व में हैं, एक नाम से जानी जाती है और वह नाम शब्द एक Noun है । शब्द ‘सभी वस्तुएं’ का मतलब कोई भी वस्तु जैसे : गिने जाने वाले, ना गिने जाने वाले, दिखने वाले, ना दिखने वाले, स्पर्श्य, अस्परर्श्य, घटनायें, भावनायें आदि । Noun शब्द है ना के वास्तविक/असली वस्तुएं ।

Examples of Nouns

Person Vartika, Kanika, Tom, Ashoka, doctor, girl, Princess, Queen, Soldier, Coursine, Indian
Animal Dog, cat, lion, rabbit, horse, donkey, monkey, parraot, bird, crocodile
Place Delhi, London, New York, school, college, garden, AkShardham, House, Taj Mahal, Factory
Things Computer, table, book, speaker, fan, car, gold, glass, mobile, train, helicopter
Idea Happiness, pride, politeness, helplessness, relation, nationality, excitement, childhood

How to identify a Noun

The above definition of Noun states that name of everything is a Noun. However, there are certain words which may be Noun and Verb like ‘work’. Word ‘work’ is a verb and is also a noun. We can recognize a Noun by testing the following:

उपर दी गयी Noun की परिभाषा बताती है की प्रत्येक वस्तु का नाम Noun है । हालांकि कुछ शब्द है जो Noun और वर्ब हो सकते है जैसे ‘work’ । शब्द ‘work’ एक verb है और एक Noun भी है । हम Noun की पहचान इस प्रकार कर सकते हैं:

1 Noun usually (but not always) come after a determiners – a, an, the, my, this, some, a few, a lot. e.g.- a dog, a lot of money. आमतौर पर Noun (हमेशा नही) determiners – (a, an, the, my, this, some, a few, a lot । जैसे :- a dog, a lot of money) के बाद आता है ।
2 Noun may comes afer one or two Adjectives e.g.- my blue car, her long and black hair. Noun एक या दो Adjective के बाद आ सकता है जैसे – मेरी नीली कार, उसके लम्बे और काले बाल ।
3 Noun can have a plural forms. (Uncountable nouns do not have plural form but can be checked by adding words – any or some) e.g.- Computers, birds, some milk. Noun का प्लुरल (बहुवचन) हो सकता है । (Uncountable Noun की प्लुरल फ़ॉर्म नही होती परंतु – ‘any or some’ शब्दों को लगाकर चेक किया जा सकता है जैसे – computer, birds, some milk ।
4 Function of a word in sentence may also help in identification of noun – Broadly Noun acts as Subject and Object in a sentence. However, Pronoun can also be the Subject or Object in a sentence. वाक्य में शब्द का कार्य भी Noun की पहचान में मदद कर सकता है । मोटेतौर पर Noun वाक्य में सब्जेक्ट और ऑब्जेक्ट की तरह कार्य करता है । सर्वनाम भी वाक्य में सब्जेक्ट और ऑब्जेक्ट हो सकता है ।
5 Word endings may also help in identifying Noun like: शब्दों का अंत भी Noun की पहचान करने में मदद कर सकता है जैसे:
-ist = Racist
-ity = Cavity
-ee = Trainee
-ism = Socialism
-dom = Freedom
-ness = Firmness
-ment = Excitement
-hood = Brotherhood
-er = Writer, Carpenter
-or = Inspector, Director

Test of word ‘Work’ in two different sentences:

They work very slow. (Word – Work) The work was very slow. (Word – Work)
Determiners cannot be placed before it Determiner ‘The’ is placed before it hence it is a Noun
No Adjective can be placed before it. Adjective like ‘Important’, ‘Simple and easy’ can be placed before it hence it is a Noun
As per grammar in this tense it cannot be pluralized here It can be plularized – The works were…. Hence it is a Noun
Word ending point – not relevant here Word ending point – not relevant here
Here it is neither functioning as a Subject nor an Object. It is acting here as a Verb. Here it is functioning as a Subject, hence it is a Noun

Kinds of Noun

There are different kinds of Noun. Though there are different kinds of Noun, a Noun can fit into more than one type.

Noun Types

Common Noun Proper Noun
Countabe Noun Uncountable Noun
Collective Noun Compound Noun
Abstract Noun Concrete Noun
Possessive Noun

Common Noun –

Common Noun is a name given in common to every non-specific thing, person, place, etc. Common nouns begin with small letter. It begins with capital letter only if it is the first word of the sentence.

Common Noun –  आम व्यक्ति, वस्तु, स्थान Common Noun है । इंग्लिश में इसका पहला अक्षर छोटा होता है । Common Noun का पहला अक्षर तभी capital लेटर से शुरू होता है जब वह वाक्य का पहला शब्द हो ।

Examples : toy, pen, room, garden man, girl, month, day, chair, school, boy, car, are common nouns because each of these nouns refers to a common thing, place or person.

Proper Noun –

Proper Noun is a name given to a specific thing, person, place etc. Proper noun always begin with a capital letter.

Proper Noun – खास व्यक्ति, वस्तु, स्थान Proper Noun है । Proper Noun को इंग्लिश में capital letter से शुरू करते हैं ।

Examples : Skoda Car, April, Monday, London, Mahatma Gandhi, India, are proper nouns because each of these nouns refers to a particular thing, place or person.
If a common noun is specified it becomes a proper noun. For example month is a common noun but if it is specified like April or September, it becomes proper noun.
Proper nouns are sometimes used as common nouns – He is the Dhanawaantree (the great Ayurveda doctor) of our family.

यदि Common Noun को खास बनाया जाये तो वह Proper Noun बन जाता है – जैसे month Common Noun है परंतु यदि इसे April या September का नाम दिया जाये तो यह Proper Noun बन जाता है ।
Proper Noun भी कभी कभी Common Noun के तौर पर इस्तेमाल होते है जैसे – वह हमारे परिवार का धन्वन्तरी (प्रसिद्ध आयुर्वेद डॉक्टर) है ।

Proper Noun vs Common Noun

Common Noun Proper Noun
man Vivekanand, Gurudev Narain Datt Shrimaliji
building Parliament, Burj Khalifa
park Meghdutam Park, Zoorassic Park
road Janpath Road, Ashoka Road
mountain Everest, Kanchenjunga
river The Ganga, The Thames
ocean Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean
country India, The USA
religion Hindu, Christianity
aircraft Miraj, Jet
Dog Spoty, Sheru

Countable Noun –

Countable nouns are the names of object, people, thing that we can count.

Countable Noun – व्यक्ति, वस्तु ओर स्थान जिसे गिना जा सकता है, Countable Noun है ।

Examples: book, pen, student, doctor, cat, woman.

Uncountable Noun –

Uncountable nouns are the names of object, concept, thing which we cannot count.

Uncounable Noun –  ऐसी वस्तु या स्थिति जिसे गिना ना जा सके, Uncountable Noun है ।

Examples: milk, sugar, honesty, water, swimming, history, English, information.

Countable Noun vs Uncountable Noun

Usages Countable Noun Uncountable Noun
Use of a, an or Number We can use a, an or number before countable nouns e.g. A pen, an orange, three books. A, an or number is not used before uncountable nouns e.g. Money, music, milk. For using Articles before uncountable noun, we put words “_____ of” between article and uncountable noun e.g. A glass of milk, an instalment of money.
Countable Noun से पहले हम a, an या नंबर का प्रयोग कर सकते हैं जैसे : A pen, an orange, three books । A, an या नंबर का प्रयोग Uncountable Noun से पहले नही किया जाता है जैसे : money, music, milk । Uncountable Noun से पहले आर्टिकल्स लगाने के लिये हम आर्टिकल्स और Uncountable Noun के बीच शब्द “____of ” लगाते हैं जैसे : A glass of milk, an instalment of Money ।
Plural form Countable nouns can have plural forms e.g. Dogs, birds, cars. Uncountable nouns are treated singular noun. It is incorrect to add ‘s/es’ with uncountable nouns – moneys, milks, waters
Countable Noun का प्लुरल फ़ॉर्म हो सकता है जैसे : Dogs, birds, cars । Uncountable Nouns सिंगुलर माने जाते हैं । Uncountable Noun में ‘s/es’ जोड़ना सही नही है – moneys, milks, waters । कुछ Uncountable Noun दिखने में प्लुरल लगते हैं किन्तु वे सिंगुलर माने जाते हैं जैसे : News, economics
Use of – some, any and a lot of Words – Some, any and a lot of can be used with countable nouns e.g. some computers, any train, a lot of messages Some,any and a lot of can be used with uncountable nouns also e.g. some oil, any wine, a lot of whisky
शब्द – Some, any और a lot of, countable Noun के साथ प्रयुक्त हो सकते हैं जैसे : Some computers, any train, a lot of messages शब्द – Some, any और a lot of, Uncountable Noun के साथ प्रयुक्त हो सकते हैं जैसे : Some oil, any wine, a lot of whisky
Use of – many, few, much and little Words – many and few are used with countable nouns – many dishes, few customers. Words – much and little are used with uncountable nouns e.g. much rice, little coffee.
शब्द – Many और few countable Noun के साथ प्रयुक्त होते हैं जैसे : Many dishes, few customers शब्द – Much और little Uncountable Noun के साथ प्रयुक्त होते हैं जैसे : Much rice, little coffee ।

Some nouns can be used as countable or uncountable based on their meaning in the sentence. Normally a noun is uncountable when it is used in general meaning (Not as a separate thing) and becomes countable noun when it is used in a particular meaning (As a separate thing). For example – Taj Mahal is made of marble stones. (Uncountable noun). Taj Mahal is made of one thousand Marble Stones.(Countable noun).

वाक्य में उनके अर्थ के आधार पर कुछ Noun Countable और Uncountable की तरह प्रयुक्त हो सकते हैं । आमतौर पर Noun Uncountable होता है जब साधारण अर्थों में इसका प्रयोग होता है (अलग वस्तु की तरह नही) और countable Noun बन जाता है जब इसका किसी खास अर्थ में प्रयोग होता है (अलग वस्तु की तरह) । उदाहरण – ताज महल मार्बल पत्थर से बना है । (Uncountable Noun) । ताज महल 100 मार्बल पत्थरों से बना है । (countable Noun) ।

The Noun

Collective Noun –

Nouns which denote a group of persons, things, places, objects or concepts are Collective Nouns.

Collective Noun – Noun जो व्यक्ति, वस्तु, स्थान, ऑब्जेक्ट या अवधारणा के समूह को व्यक्त करे Collective Noun है ।

Examples of Collective Noun

Collective Noun Collective Noun is a group of…
crowd group of people
mob Collection of people
army group of trained and organised people/soldier
jury group of judges
committee group of officials
family group of family members
audience group of viewers or listeners
flock group of animals
herd group of cattle

Collective Noun can be singular or plural depending on its usage in the sentence. When a Collective Noun is used considering the group as a single unit in a sentence, it is singular e.g. The jury is sitting on the bench. Here Jury is referred as a group. When the Collective Noun is used referring to the individuals of the group, it is plural e.g. The jury are discussing among themselves. Here Jury is referred for judges of the Jury, hence it is plural.

वाक्य में प्रयोग के आधार पर Collective Noun सिंगुलर ओर प्लुरल हो सकते हैं । जब Collecltive Noun वाक्य में ग्रूप को एक इकाई मानकर प्रयुक्त होता है, वह सिंगुलर है जैसे The Jury is sitting on the bench । यहाँ Jury एक समूह को व्यक्त करता है । जब Collective Noun ग्रूप के व्यक्तियों/साथियों का उल्लेख करते हुए प्रयुक्त होता है, वह प्लुरल होता है जैसे The Jury are discussing among themselves । यहाँ Jury ने Jury के जजों को व्यक्त किया है इसलिये यह प्लुरल है ।

Compound Noun

Compound Noun is a combination of two or more words. When we join two or more words and the combination of words act together as a single unit, it is known as Compound Noun. The combination of words could be anything i.e. noun + noun, noun + verb, noun + adjective, verb + noun, or verb + preposotion.

Compound Noun – Compound noun – Compound Noun दो या दो से ज्यादा शब्दों का संयोजन है । जब हम दो या दो से अधिक शब्दों को संयुक्त करते हैं और शब्दों का संयोजन एक सिंगल इकाई की तरह कार्य करता है, वह Compound Noun से जाना जाता है । शब्दों का संयोजन कुछ भी हो सकता है जैसे -noun + noun, noun + verb, noun + adjective, verb + noun, या verb + preposotion ।

There are three forms of Compound Noun :
1. Hyphenated – Cooking-oil, ice-cream
2. Open space – Washing powder, black eye
3. Without space – milkshake, football

Composition of Compound Noun

Noun plus Noun chairman, cowboy
Noun plus Verb bullfight, sidewalk
Noun plus Adjective mouthful, housetop
Adjective plus Noun black board, ponytail
Adjective plus Verb highlight, hardwork
Preposition plus Noun underground, underworld
Preposition plus Verb outlook, overthrow
Verb plus Preposition check-in, lookout
Verb plus Noun breakfast, watchword
Verb + Ing plus Noun washing machine, swimming costume

Abstract Noun –

Nouns which you cannot perceive with your five senses (see, hear, touch, smell or taste) are called Abstract Nouns. Abstract Noun is intangible and it does not have physical existence. Abstract Noun refers to idea, concept, quality or feeling.

Abstract Noun – Noun जिन्हे तुम अपनी पांच इन्द्रियों से (देखना, सुनना, स्पर्श करना, सूंघना और स्वाद लेना) देख/बूझ नही सकते Abstract Noun कहलाते हैं । Abstract Noun अस्पर्शिय है और इसका भौतिक अस्तित्व नही होता । Abstract Noun विचार, अवधारणा, गुणवत्ता और भावना को व्यक्त करते हैं ।

Concrete Noun

Concrete Noun is the opposite of Abstractive Noun. Nouns which you can see, hear, touch, smell or taste are called Concrete Nouns like people, animal, places and object.

Concrete Noun – Abstract Noun से एकदम विपरीत है Concrete Noun । Noun जिन्हें तुम देख, सुन, स्पर्श, सूंघ ओर टेस्ट कर सकते हो Concrete Noun कहलाते हैं जैसे व्यक्ति, जानवर, स्थान और वस्तुएं ।

Abstract Noun vs Concrete Noun

Sentence Description – Concrete Noun / Abstract Noun व्याख्या – Concrete Noun / Abstract Noun
Children were given trophy for their courage. Trophy’ is a Concrete Noun as we can see it and ‘courage’ is an Abstract Noun as it cannot be seen. Trophy Concrete Noun है क्योंकि हम इसे देख सकते है और ‘courage’ Abstract Noun है क्योंकि इसे देखा नही जा सकता ।
Time is a great healer. Time’ is an Abstract Noun as it cannot be perceived with our senses. टाइम’ Abstract Noun है क्योंकि इसे अपनी इन्द्रियों से देखा/बूझा नही जा सकता है ।
When Atharva saved the drowning girl, his bravery made him hero. Atharva’ and ‘drowning girl’ are Concrete Noun as we can see them and ‘bravery’ is an Abstract Noun as it cannot be seen. Atharva’ और ‘drowning girl’ Concrete Noun है क्योंकि हम इन्हें देख सकते हैं और ‘bravery’ Abstract Noun क्योंकि इसे हम देख नही सकते हैं

Examples of Abstract Noun and Concrete Noun

Abstract Noun Abstract Noun Concrete Noun Concrete Noun
anger justice book door
charity knowledge building fire
childhood love bus mountain
creativity loyalty car pen
faith peace chair swimming pool
freedom pleasure computer table
friendship poverty container toothpaste
happiness reality cow train
honesty trust dentist utencil
joy wisdom dog washing machine

Possessive Noun

Possessive Nouns show ownership or possession or a relationship of belonging between two things. Most of Possessive Noun show possession by an apostrophe ( ‘ )and the letter ‘s’ or just an apostrophe. Let us take an example – Akshay’s car, Minister’s peon and Mona Lisa’s secrets can become a breaking news. Possessive Noun “Akhay’s” denotes that car is owned by Akshay. Possessive Noun does not always show possession or ownership, it sometimes shows relation or connection between two things like in the example “Minister’s peon” and “Mona Lisa’s secrets” shows a relation or connection between them.

Possessive Noun दो वस्तुओं के बीच स्वामित्व, कब्जा या एक सम्बंध दिखाता है । ज्यादातर Possessive Noun possession को apostrophe ( ‘ ) और अक्षर ‘s’ या केवल apostrophe द्वारा दर्शाते हैं । ऐसे उदाहरण लें – Akshay’s car, Minister’s peon and Mona Lisa’s secrets can become a breaking news । Possessive Noun “Akhay’s” बताता है की कार किसकी है । Possessive Noun हमेशा कब्जा या स्वामित्व नही दर्शाती, यह कभी कभी दो वस्तुओं के बीच का रिश्ता या सम्बंध बताती है जैसा की उदाहरण में “Minister’s peon” और “Mona Lisa’s secrets” उनके बीच का एक सम्बंध दिखाता है।

Rule of Apostrophe

Type Rule of Apostrophe Examples
Singular Noun Add an apostrophe + s ( ‘s ) to most singular nouns Avyan’s toy, cat’s furs, book’s page, book’s covers
Plural Noun Add an apostrophe + s ( ‘s ) to plural nouns which does not end in ‘s’. Children’s games, people’s views, women’s cell, teeth’s cleaning
Plural Noun Add only apostrophe ( ‘ ) to plural nouns which ends in ‘s’. Babies’ soap, girls’ parents, companies’ officials, dogs’ meeting
Compound Noun Add an apostrophe + s ( ‘s ) to the last word Commander-in-Chief’s orders, sister-in-law’s marriage, washing machine’s pipe
Two Nouns joined together Add an apostrophe + s ( ‘s ) to the second word when both noun share the possession of an object. Sonu and Monu’s father, Sita and Gita’s parlour, Siddu and Kapil’s comedy show
Two Nouns joined together Add an apostrophe + s ( ‘s ) to both word when ownership is separate. Boy’s and girl’s dress codes are blue and pink.
Apostrophe is not used with the words His, hers, yours, mine, ours, its, theirs Hers mobile, yours sincerely, mine opinion, its problems
Apostrophe is used with the words Everybody, somebody, nobody, anybody, anyone, someone, everyone, none Everybody’s support, anybody’s contribution, everyone’s time is precious.
Double Apostrophe in a sentence should be avoided. e.g. Avyan’s frined’s birthday was celeberated in the school. – Here double apostrophe is used in the sentence. It should be written : Birthday of Avyan’s friend was celeberated in the school.

Singular and Plural Noun

Singular Noun means one noun e.g. cat, dog, boy, girl, gift, car. Plural Noun means more than one nouns e.g. boys, girls, speakers, people, players. For making plural noun, ‘e/es’ is added with the Regular Noun. The rule of adding ‘e/es’ is given below:

Singular Noun का अर्थ है एक noun जैसे बिल्ली, कुत्ता, लड़का, लड़की, उपहार, कार ।  प्लुरल Noun का अर्थ है एक से ज्यादा noun जैसे लड़के, लड़कियां, बोलने वाले वक्ता, लोग, खिलाड़ी ।  प्लुरल noun बनाने के लिये ‘s/es’ Regular Noun के साथ जोड़ा जाता है ।  ‘s/es’ जोड़ने का नियम नीचे दिया गया है:

Last letter of Noun Add ” ” with Noun Examples
ch, s, x or s sound es Watch-watches, Bus-buses, boss-bosses, Fax-faxes
f or fe ves Wife-wives, knife-knives, leaf-leaves, life-lives
y (when second last letter is a consonant) ies Study-studies, city-cities, penny-pennies, spy-spies
y (when second last letter is a vowel) s Day-days, key-keys, toy-toys, spray-sprays
o (there is no firm rule) es Tomato-tomatoes, hero-heroes, buffalo-buffaloes, mosquito-mosquitoes
o (there is no firm rule) s Auto-autos, studio-studios, photo-photos, kilo-kilos
o (there is no firm rule) s or es Tornado-tornados/tornadoes, cargo-cargos/cargoes
most of the nouns s Bottle-bottles, prize-prizes, speaker-speakers, rat-rats
Compound Nouns (‘s’ is added to principal word s Courts-of-law, men-of-war, commanders-in-chief, sons-in-law

For making plural of Irregular Noun, different word is formed.

Irregular noun का बहुवचन बनाने के लिये अलग शब्द बनाया जाता है ।

Examples: Man-men, woman-women, mouse-mice, tooth-teeth, foot-feet, goose-geese, child-children, ox-oxen, person-people.

Few nouns are always plural and look plural. It cannot be made singular by removing ending ‘s’ from them.

कुछ noun हमेशा plural होते है और प्लुरल दिखते है । इनको आखिर में लगे ‘s’ को हटा कर सिंगुलर नही बनाया जा सकता है ।

Examples : Assests, congratulations, particulars, proceedings, regards, thanks, wages, vegetables, scissors, goggles, spectacles, belongings, trousers, pants, ashes, arrears, troops, archives, seals, savings, tactics.

मेरे चश्में कहां है । Where are my spectacles.
तुम्हारे माता-पिताजी को हमारा नमस्कार कहना । Convey our regards to your parents.
उसकी सारी सम्पत्ति वेबसाइट पर घोषित थी । All his assets were declared on website.
मेरे विवरण Facebook पर उपलब्ध है । My particulars are available on Facebook.

Few nouns look plural but actually they are singular.

कुछ Noun प्लुरल दिखते है परन्तु वास्तव में वे सिंगुलर होते है ।

Examples : News, mathematics, economics, physics, politics, innings, mechanics, ethics.

गणित मेरा पसन्दीदा विषय है । Mathematics is my favourite subject.
सुबह के समाचार मेरे नाश्ते के साथी है । Morning news is a companion of my breakfast.
मेरी दूसरी पारी मेरी जिन्दगी की सफलता का निर्णय करने जा रही है । My second innings is going to decide my success in life.
आजकल आचारनीति महत्वपूर्ण नही है । Now a days ethics is not important.

Few nouns look singular but actually they are plural.

कुछ Noun सिंगुलर दिखते है परन्तु वास्तव में वे प्लुरल होते है ।

Examples : Cattle, gentry, infantry, people, poultry.

उसके पास 20 पॉल्ट्री (मुर्गी) है । He has twenty poultry.
पशु घास चार रहे है । Cattle are grazing grass.
हमारी सोसायटी की जेंट्री अच्छी है । The gentry are good in our society.
हमारी सेना उच्च तकनीकी के हथियारों से सुसज्जित है । Our infantry are equipped with high tech weapons.

Few nouns are always used in singular form.

कुछ Noun हमेशा सिंगुलर फोर्म में प्रयुक्त होते है ।

Examples : Poetry, furniture, information, hair, bread, luggage, knowledge, jewellery, crockery, scenery. These nouns cannot be made plural by adding ‘s’. For making plural, few words are added.

हरा दृश्य सभी द्वारा पसंद किया जाता है । Green scenery is alway liked by all.
फ्लैट में फर्नीचर बिल्डर द्वारा दिया गया है । Furniture in the flat is provided by the builder.
मेरे बाल काले हैं । My hair is black.
अच्छी ज्वैलरी सभी महिलाओं का ध्यान आकर्षित करती है । Good jewellery catches eyes of all women.
उसने कुछ ज्वैलरी की चीजें खरीदी । She bought a few articles of jwellery.
तुम कई प्रकार के फर्नीचर बड़े शोरूम में देख सकते हो । You can see many kinds of furniture in big showroom.

Few nouns remain same in singular and plural forms.

कुछ Noun सिंगुलर और प्लुरल प्रयोग में समान रहते है ।

Examples : fish, jury, team, aircraft, counsel.

हमारी टीम ने मैच जीत लिया है । Our team has won the match.
सभी टीमों ने अपना सर्वोत्तम प्रदर्शन किया है । All the team have performed their best.
मछली घर में काफी मछलियां सुनहरी मछली के चारों तरफ तैर रही थी । A lot of fish in the aquarium were swimming around the golden fish.
पंचायत बेंच (न्यायधीश का स्थान) पर बैठी है । The jury is sitting on the bench.
पंच आपस में चर्चा कर रहें है । The jury are discussing among themselves.

Few nouns are plural in meaning but cannot be pluralise if definite number adjective before it. If such nouns are used with indefinite countables then they are used as plurals.

कुछ Noun अर्थ में प्लुरल होते है परन्तु उनके प्लुरल नही बनाया जा सकता यदि निश्चित संख्या adjective उसके पहले आए । अगर ऐसे noun अनिश्चित countable (गणन-योग्य) के साथ प्रयुक्त हो तो उनका प्लुरल प्रयोग होता है ।

Examples : Pair, dozen, hundred, thousand, million, billion.

मेरे पास पाँच सौ रूपये है । I have five hundred rupees only.
सैंकड़ो कुत्ते जंगले में भौंक रहे थे । Hundreds of dogs were barking in the forest.
नेहा के पास दस जोड़ी जूते घर पर हैं । Neha has ten pair of shoes at home.
उसके पास भी कई जोड़ी जूते है । He has also many pairs of shoes.
दर्जनों लड़कियाँ बाग में खेल रही है । Dozens of girls are playing in the garden.
दो दर्जन केले कार में रखे है । Two dozen bananas are kept in the car

‘Noun + preposition + same noun’ remains singular

‘Noun + Prepositipm + वही noun’ सिंगुलर रहते है ।

Examples : Door to door, Speech after speech, Award after award, Row after row

वहां पर्वतों की कतार पर कतार थी । There was row after row of montains.
घर-घर बेचना बहुत कठिन है । Selling door to door is very tough.
उसने अपने उत्तम प्रदर्शन से ईनाम पर इनाम जीते है । She has won award after award for her excellent performance.
नेता बिना थके भाषण पर भाषण दे सकते है । Leaders can deliver speech after speech without getting tired.

Few nouns have two types of plurals with different meaning:

कुछ Noun के दो प्रकार के अलग अर्थ वाले प्लुरल होते है ।

Brother Brothers – Sons of same parent.
Brothern – Members of same society or community.
Cloth Cloths – Unstitched cloth
Clothes – Stitched clothes.
Die Dies – Stamps used for printing
Dice – Cubes used in games.

Meaning of few nouns changes when they are pluralised by adding ‘s/es’.

कुछ Noun का अर्थ बदल जाता है जब ‘s/es’ लगाकर प्लुरल बनाया जाता है ।

Air हवा Airs
Alphabet वर्णमाला Alphabets
Manner तरीका Manners
Premise प्रस्तावना Premises
Iron लोहा Irons
Effect प्रभाव Effects
Return वापसी Returns
Force शक्ति Forces
Abuse दुरुपयोग Abuses
Water पानी Waters
Ground जमीन Grounds
Quarter चौथाई भाग Quarters

Noun Phrase

A phrase is a group of words that act together as a single unit and do not convey a complete meaning. Phrase acts as a part of a clause or a sentence. A Noun phrase is a group of noun and determiners or quantifiers or adjectives or words or phrases that acts together as a single unit and play the role of a noun. The main word in noun phrase will be a noun. A noun phrase like any noun can act as a subject, an object, or a complement.

Phrase शब्दों का एक समूह है जो एक सिंगल इकाई की तरह कार्य करता है और पूरा अर्थ व्यक्त नही करता है । Phrase, clause या वाक्य के एक भाग के तौर पर कार्य करता है । Noun phrase, Noun और determiners या quantifiers या adjective या शब्द या phrase का समूह है जो एक सिंगल इकाई की तरह कार्य करता है और Noun का रोल अदा करता है । Noun phrase का मुख्य शब्द एक Noun होगा । Noun phrase भी किसी Noun की तरह वाक्य में subject, object या complement का कार्य कर सकता है ।

वाक्य Sentence Noun Phrase
ये कुत्ते बहुत खतरनाक है । These dogs are very dangerous. These dogs
हमारे परिवार के सदस्यों ने हमेशा समाज के लिये कार्य किया है । Our family members have always worked for the society. Our family members
मेरे दोनो जूनियर आज छुट्टी पर है । Both of my juniors are on leave today. Both of my juniors
मेरे कुछ मित्र एकदम सूफ़ी है । Some of my friends are teetotaler. Some of my friends
नेता जो असेंब्ली में सो रहा था, को पार्टी अध्यक्ष द्वारा झिड़की लगाई गई है । The leader sleeping in the assembly has been reprimanded by his party chief. The leader sleeping in the assembly
मैने दो तैरती हुई बत्तखों को नदी में देखा है । I have seen the two swimming ducks in the river. the two swimming ducks
पीछे देखने वाला शीशा, कार सुरक्षा का सर्वोत्तम साधन है । Rear view mirror is the best car safety tool. the best car safety tool
उसने एक नयी अवधारणा पेश की जिसे ज्यादा फीसदी श्रोताओं ने सबसे अधिक पसंद किया । She introduced a new concept that a large percentage of audience liked the most. a new concept that a large percentage of audience liked the most
वह अपने बैंक अकाउंट के बारे में चिंतित थी जो निष्क्रिय हो गया है । She was worred about her bank account that has become dormant. bank account that has become dormant

Noun Gender

The Noun-Gender depicts about the sex of the noun. Gender can be divided into four parts:
(1) Mascluline Gender

(2) Feminine Gender

(3) Common Gender

(4) Neuter Gender

Noun Gender संज्ञा के लिंग के बारे में बताता है । लिंग को चार भागों में बांटा जा सकता है:
(1) पुर्ल्लिंग (2) स्त्रीलिंग (3) समान लिंग (4) नपुंसक लिंग

(1) Mascluline Gender – Nouns which refer to male sex are called Masculine Gender. e.g. boy, lion, dog, king, father.

(1) पुर्ल्लिंग – ऐसे Noun जो male सेक्स को व्यक्त करते हैं पुर्ल्लिंग कहलाते हैं जैसे boy, lion, dog, king, father ।

(2) Feminine Gender – Nouns which refer to female sex are called Feminine Gender. e.g. girl, lioness, bitch, queen, mother.

((2) स्त्रीलिंग – ऐसे Noun जो female सेक्स को व्यक्त करते हैं स्त्रीलिंग कहलाते हैं जैसे girl, lioness, bitch, queen, mother ।

(3) Common Gender – Nouns which can be referred to both male and female are called Common Gender. e.g. Baby, child, friend, servant, student, teacher.

(3) समान लिंग – ऐसे Noun जो दोनो male और female को व्यक्त करे समान लिंग कहलाते हैं जैसे Baby, child, friend, servant, student, teacher ।

(4) Neuter Gender – Nouns which refer to a member of species which is neither male nor female are called Neuter Gender. e.g. Book, chair, table, car, school, star, tree.

(4) नपूंसक लिंग – ऐसे Noun जो उस जाति के सदस्य को व्यक्त करते हैं जो ना तो male है और ना ही female है, नपुंसक लिंग कहलाते हैं ।

Rules of Changing Masculine Noun to Feminine Noun

1. For changing Masculine Noun to Feminine Noun, ‘ess’ is added in the manner – (i) Directly adding ‘ess’ with few nouns e.g. Heir-Heiress (ii) Removing vowel preceding to last consonant and adding ‘ess’ with few nouns e.g. Actor-Actress (iii) Chaning in words and adding ‘ess’ with few nouns e.g. God-Goddess.

2. Changing first or second words of Hyphenated nouns to make Feminine Noun e.g. Land-lord – Land-lady, He-goat – She-goat, Grand-son – Grand-daughter.

3. Remaining nouns have no firm rule to change to Feminine e.g. Boy-Girl, Horse-Mare, Dog-Bitch.

1. पुर्ल्लिंग से स्त्रीलिंग में परिवर्तित करने के लिये ‘ess’ इस ढंग से जोड़ा जाता है – (i) कुछ Noun में सीधे शब्द के साथ ‘ess’ जोड़ना जैसे Heir-Heiress (ii) कुछ Noun में आखिरी consonant से पहले vowel को हटा कर ‘ess’ जोड़ना जैसे Actor-Actress (iii) कुछ Noun शब्द में कुछ परिवर्तन करके ‘ess’ जोड़ना जैसे God-Goddess ।

2. स्त्रीलिंग बनाने के लिये hyphen युक्त Noun शब्द के पहले या दूसरे शब्द को बदलना जैसे Land-lord – Land-lady, He-goat – She-goat, Grand-son – Grand-daughter ।

3. बाकि nouns का स्त्रीलिंग में परिवर्तित करने का कोई निश्चित नियम नही है जैसे : Boy-Girl, Horse-Mare, Dog-Bitch ।

List of Gender Noun

Masculine Noun पुर्ल्लिंग Feminine स्त्रीलिंग
abbot मठाध्यक्ष abbess मठाध्यक्षा
actor अभिनेता actress अभिनेत्री
Ambassador राजदूत Ambassadress महिला राजदूत
author लेखक authoress लेखिका
baron नवाब baroness नवाब की महिला
benefactor भलाई करने वाली benefactress भलाई करने वाली
conductor संवाहक, चालक conductress संवाहिका, परिचालक
count कुलीन पुरुष countess कुलीन महिला
duke राजकुमार duchess राजकुमारी
emperor राजा empress महारानी
enchanter जादूगर enchantress जादूगरनी
founder संस्थापक foundress संस्थापिका
giant भीमकाय, राक्षस giantess राक्षसी,डायन
God भगवान Goddess देवी
governor राज्यपाल governess महिला राज्यपाल
headmaster प्रधानाध्यापक headmistress प्रधानाध्यापिका
heir वारिस, उत्तराधिकारी heiress, foe उत्तराधिकारिणी
host मेजबान hostess मेहमानदारिन
hunter शिकारी huntress शिकारी महिला
Instructor शिक्षक Instructress शिक्षिका
Jew यहूदी Jewess यहूदिनी
leopard चीता leopardess मादा चीता
lion शेर lioness शेरनी
manager प्रबंधक manageress प्रबंधिका
master  गुरु, स्वामि mistress  गुरुवाइन, स्वामिनी


Masculine Noun पुर्ल्लिंग Feminine स्त्रीलिंग
mayor महापौर, नगराध्यक्ष mayoress महिला महापौर, महापौर की पत्नी
monitor निगरानी करने वाला monitress निगरानी करनेवाली
murderer हत्यारा murderess हत्यारिन
Patron संरक्षक Patroness संरक्षिका
Peer नवाब, सामंत Peeress महिला नवाब, सामंत
poet कवि poetess कवयित्री
postman चिठ्रठी देने वाला postmistress चिठ्रठी देने वाली
priest पुजारी priestess पुजारिन
prince राजकुमार princess राजकुमारी
prophet पैगंबर prophetess महिला पैगंबर
shepherd गड़रिया shepherdess गड़रियन
sorcerer जादूगर sorceress जादूगरनी
Steward जहाज का परिचारक,सेवक Stewardess जहाज की परिचारिका, सेवका
tailor दर्जी tailoress दर्जिन
tempter बहकानेवाला temptress बहकानेवाली
tiger बाघ tigress बाघिन
Tutor शिक्षक Tutoress शिक्षिका
waiter आर्डर लेने,परोसनेवाला waitress आर्डर लेने परोसनेवाली
brother-in-law साला sister-in-law साली
buck-antelope चिंकारा doe-antelope चिंकारी
buck-deer हिरण doe-deer हिरणी
buck-ferret नेवला doe-ferret नेवली
buck-rabbit नर-खरगोश doe-hare मादा खरगोशी
bull-calf छकड़ा, बछड़ा cow-calf बछड़ी, बछिया


Masculine Noun पुर्ल्लिंग Feminine स्त्रीलिंग
bull-elephant हाथी cow-elephant हथिनी
cock-pigeon कबूतर hen-pigeon कबूतरी
cock-sparrow चिडा hen-sparrow चिड़ियी, गौरया
father-in-law ससुर mother-in-law सास
he-goat बकरा she-goat बकरी
male-child बच्चा female-child बच्ची
man-servant नौकर maid-servant नौकरानी
son-in-law दामाद daughter-in-law बहु
tom-cat बिल्ला tabby-cat बिल्ली
turkey-cock टर्की मुर्गा turkey-hen टर्की मुर्गी
Masculine Noun पुर्ल्लिंग Feminine स्त्रीलिंग
administrator प्रबंधक,शासक administratrix शासिका
ass गधा jenny गधी
bachelor कुंवारा spinster कुंवारी
beau बांका,रंगीला belle सुन्दरी, रंगीली
boar जंगली सूअर sow सूअरी
boy लड़का girl लड़की
bridegroom दूल्हा bride दूल्हन
brother भाई sister बहन
buck नर doe मादा
bull, ox साँड,बैल cow गाय
Bullock बघिया Heifer बछिया
cob (swan) हंस pen हंसिनी
cock मुर्गा hen मुर्गी
cock (rooster) मुर्गा hen मुर्गी


Masculine Noun पुर्ल्लिंग Feminine स्त्रीलिंग
colt बछड़ा filly बछड़ी
colt (young horse) घोडे का बछड़ा filly बछडी
dog कुत्ता bitch कुत्तिया
donkey गधा jenny गधी
drake बत्तख duck बत्तखी
drone नर मधुमक्खी bee मादा मधुमक्खी
father पिताजी mother माताजी
fiance मंगेतर (लड़का) fiancee मंगेतर (लड़की)
fox लोमड़ vixen लोमड़ी
friar, monk भिक्षु, तपस्वी, संन्यासी nun संन्यासिनी,साधवी
gander हँस goose हँसिनी
gentleman सभ्य पुरुष gentlewoman सभ्य औरत
grandfather दादाजी grandmother दादीजी
grandson पोता, पौत्र, दोता granddaughter पोती, पौत्री, दोत्री
hart, stag बारहसिंगा hind बारहसिंही
He, boy लड़का She, girl लड़की
hero नायक heroine नायिका
him उसका her उसकी
horse घोड़ा mare घोड़ी
hound शिकारी कुत्ता brach शिकारी कुत्तिया
husband पति, शौहर wife पत्नी
king राजा queen रानी
lad किशोर lass कशोरी
landlord मालिक landlady मालकिन
male पुरुष female महिला


Masculine Noun पुर्ल्लिंग Feminine स्त्रीलिंग
man पुरुष, आदमी woman महिला, औरत
masseur मालिशवाला masseuse मालिशवाली
milkman दूधवाला milkmaid दूधवाली
nephew भतीजा,भान्जा niece भतीजी, भान्जी
peacock मोर peahen मोरनी
pig सूअर sow सूअरी
policeman पुलिसवाला policewoman पुलिसवाली
prosecutor अभियोग पक्ष का वकील prosecutrix अभियोग पक्ष की महिला वकील
Ram भेड़ा Ewe भेड़ी
sheep भेड़ा, भेड़, मेमना ewe भेड़ी
son बेटा daughter बेटी
stallion घोड़ा mare घोड़ी
stepfather सौतेला पिता stepmother सौतेली माता
stepson सौतेला बेटा stepdaughter सौतेली बेटी
testator वसीयतकर्ता testatrix वसीयतकर्त्री
uncle अंकल aunt आंटी
Viceroy राजप्रतीनिधी vicereine महिला राजप्रतीनिधी
washerman धोबी washerwoman धोबन
widower विधुर widow विधवा
wizard ओझा witch जादूगरनी

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