Introduction

1. वक्ता (Speaker) के कहे हुए शब्दों को दो प्रकार  से प्रकट किया जा है।
i) हम वक्ता के शब्दों को ज्यों का त्यों कह सकते हैं ।

जैसे –

He said,”I am going to Delhi.” (Direct Narration or Direct Speech)
उपयुक्त वाक्य मे वक्त (speaker) he है तथा he के कहे हुए शब्दों को ज्यो का त्यों Inverted commas “……….” मे लिखा गया है ।
ii) हम वक्ता के कहे हुए शब्दों का सारांश (Substance) प्रकट करते है ।

जैसे –

He said that he was going to Delhi.(Indirect Narration or Indirect Speech)
उपयुक्त वाक्य मे वक्ता के शब्दों को ज्यो का त्यों न कहकर उसका भाव प्रकट किया जाता है । इसलिए I को he मे तथा am को was मे बदलना पड़ा ।
Indirect Speech मे Inverted commas का प्रयोग नहीं होता है ।

2. Direct Narration के दो भाग होते है – Reporting Verb तथा Reported Part या Reported Speech.
i) Reporting Verb – Reporting Part मे वक्ता बात को जिस Finite Verb से आरम्भ करता है उसे Reporting Verb कहते हैं । इसको Invented Commas से बाहर लिखा जाता है ।
ii) Reported Speech – जो कुछ वक्ता द्वारा कहा जाता है उसे Reported Part या Reported Speech कहते हैं। इसे Inverted Commas के अंदर लिखा जाता है ।

जैसे –

Reported Verb              Reported Part या Reported Speech
Ram said                               “Will you give me your pen?”

Direct Speech के मुख्य बिन्दु :
1. Direct Speech मे वक्ता के कथन को Inverted Commas के अंदर रखा जाता है ।
2. Reporting Verb के पश्चात् comma(,) का प्रयोग होता है ।
3. Invered commas के अन्दर के भाग का प्रथम अक्षर Capital letter से लिखा जाता है ।

Direct से Indirect मे बदलने के सामान्य नियम :
1. Indirect Speech मे Inverted Commas “…….” को हटा देते है ।
2. Reporting Verb के बाद comma(,) का प्रयोग नहीं होता ।
3. Reporting Verb का tense कभी नहीं बदलता ।
4. Reporting Verb को Reported speech के भाव के अनुसार told, requested, advised, ordered आदि में बदल देते हैं ।

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Assertive Sentences Part 1

Tenses में परिवर्तन सम्बन्धी नियम (Rules for the change of Tenses)

Rule 1: यदि Reporting Verb, Present अथवा Future Tense मे हो। तो Reported Speech के Verb के Tense में किसी प्रकार का परिवर्तन नहीं करते हैं । जैसे:

Direct – Ram says,”Hari has gone to Agra.”
Indirect – Ram says that Hari has gone to Agra.
Direct – Sohan will say,”Asha is very intelligent.”
Indirect – Sohan will say that Asha is very intelligent.
Direct – He has said to me,” Ravi will join the camp.”
Indirect – He has told me that Ravi will join the camp.

Note : say, says या said को Indirect Speech में tell, tells या told में उस समय बदलते है , जब इसके बाद Object (कर्म ) हो । यदि say, says या said के बाद Object न हो तो उन्हें नहीं बदलते ।

Rule 2: यदि Reporting Verb, Past Tense में हो , तो Reported Speech के Tense में परिवर्तन होता है ।

a) Simple Present Tense बदलकर Simple Past Tense हो जाता है। जैसे :

Direct – Mohan said,” Raman tells a lie.”
Indirect – Mohan said that Raman told a lie.

b) Present Continuous या Imperfect को Past Continuous या Imperfect में बदल देते है ।जैसे:

Direct – Sonu said to me, “Rakesh is writing a book.”
Indirect – Sonu told me that Rakesh was writing a book.

c) Present Perfect Tense को Past Perfect Tense में बदल देते है। जैसे:

Direct – Ramesh said, “Raman has completed his work.”
Indirect – Ramesh said that Raman had completed his work.

d) Present Perfect Continuous को Past Perfect Continuous में बदल देते हैं । जैसे:

Direct – He said,” It has been raining since morning.”
Indirect – He said that it had been raining since morning.

e) Past Indefinite को बदल कर Past Perfect में कर देते हैं । जैसे –
Direct – He said,”The horse died in the night .”
Indirect – He said that the horse had died in the night.

f) Past Continuous को Past Perfect Continuous में बदल देते हैं । जैसे:

Direct – He said,” The students were learning their lessons.”
Indirect – He said that the students had been learning their lessons.

g) Past Perfect Tense तथा Past Perfect Continuous में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता है। जैसे:

1. Direct – He said,”Uma had won the match.”
    Indirect – He said that uma had won the match.
2. Direct – She said,”Uma had been reading for two hours.”
    Indirect – She said that Uma had been reading for two hours.

h) यदि Reporting Verb भूतकाल (Past Tense) में है , तो Reported Speech में आने वाले ‘shall’ को should एवं ‘will’ को would में बदल देते है।जैसे:

1. Direct – I said,”I shall play.”
    Indirect – I said that I should play.
2. Direct – She said,”Uma will see a picture.”
    Indirect – She said that Uma would see a picture.

i) यदि Reporting Verb Past Tense में है , तो Reported Speech में आने वाले ‘can’ को could तथा ‘may’ को might में बदल देते है । परन्तु ‘must’, ‘ought’, ‘could’, ‘would’, ‘might’, ‘had better’तथा ‘used to’ में परिवर्तन नहीं होता है । जैसे :

1. Direct – I said,”I can jump into the river.”
    Indirect – I said that I could jump into the river.
2. Direct – She said,”The boy may go.”
    Indirect – She said that the boy might go.
3. Direct – The teacher said,”Ram must be awarded.”
    Indirect – I said that Ram must be awarded.
4. Direct – She said to me,”I should have tried harder.”
    Indirect – She told me that I should have tried harder.

Tense सम्बन्धी नियम के अपवाद (Exceptions)

नीचे लिखी दशाओ में Reporting Verb, Past Tense में होते हुए भी Reported Speech का Tense नहीं बदलता है :

(1) जब कोई सदा सत्य रहने वाली बात (Universal Truth) कही जाए; जैसे :

1. Direct – The teacher said,”The earth moves round the sun.”
    Indirect – The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun.
2. Direct – He said,”The sun rises in the east.”
    Indirect – He said that the sun rises in the east.

(2) जब कोई आदत सम्बन्धी सत्य (Habitual fact) कहा जाए ; जैसे :

1. Direct – Hari said to Ravi,”Dogs bark at the strangers.”
    Indirect – Hari told Ravi that dogs bark at the strangers.
2. Direct – The teacher said,”When the cat is away, the mice play.”
    Indirect – The teacher said that when the cat is away, the mice play.

(3) जब कोई कहावत (Proverb) कही जाए ; जैसे : 

    Direct – Hari said,”Honesty is the best policy.”
    Indirect – Hari said that honesty is the best policy.

(4) जब किसी ऐतिहासिक घटना (Historical fact) का जिक्र हो ; जैसे:

    Direct – The History teacher said,”Samudra Gupta is called the Napoleon of India.”
    Indirect – The History teacher said that Samudra Gupta is called the Napoleon of India.

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Assertive Sentences Part 2

Persons में परिवर्तन के नियम (Rules for the change of Persons)

Rule 1: Direct से Indirect बनाते समय Reported Speech के First Person के Pronouns (I, me, my, mine, we, us, ours) को Reporting Verb के Subject के Person, Number और Gender के अनुसार बदल देते है ।जैसे :

1. Direct – I said, ” I do not like that book.”
    Indirect – I said that I did not like that book.
2. Direct – You said, “I am learning my lesson.”
    Indirect – you said that you were learning your lesson.
3. Direct – They said,”We want to go to Delhi.”
    Indirect – They said that they wanted to go to Delhi.

Rule 2: Direct से Indirect में परिवर्तन करते समय Reported Speech में आये हुए Second Person के Pronouns(you, your, yours) को reporting Verb के Object के Person , Number और Gender के अनुसार बदल देते है । जैसे :

1. Direct – He said to me, “You are happy.”
    Indirect – He told me that I was happy.
2. Direct – You said to him, “You are very sad.”
    Indirect – You told him that you were very sad.
3. Direct – He said to them,”You are not doing any work.”
    Indirect – He told them that they were not doing any work.”

Rule 3: Direct से Indirect में परिवर्तन करते समय Reported Speech में आये हुए Third Person के Pronouns (he, she, it, they, his, her, its, their, him, them) में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं करते है ।जैसे :

1. Direct – He said, “He is a postman.”
    Indirect – He said that he was a postman.
2. Direct – You said , “She is not a good girl.”
    Indirect – You said that she was not a good girl.
3. Direct –  Alam said to Kriya,”I shall always help you.”
    Indirect – He told them that he(Alam) would always help her(Kriya).

Table of Changes in Pronouns :

Person Nominative or Subjective form Objective form Possessive form
First Person I, We me, us my, mine, our, ours
Second Person You you your, yours
Third Person He
She
It
They
him
her
it
them
his
her, hers
its
their, theirs